Plants make use of a wide array of reproductive options to perpetuate, both sexually (seed) and asexually (vegetative or cloning). Wherever progenies with uniformity, quality and productivity are required, tissue culture methods are favored. Plant Tissue Culture, which had its genesis during early 20th Century, was basically used as a refined tool for botanical investigations. Extensive research carried out by scientists of many countries including India, micro propagation has developed into one of the most beneficial ways to produce crops that are difficult to multiply by conventional methods.
German Botanist Gottilieb Haberlandt conceived the concept of cell culture in 1902.
It was white in 1934 that was the first to obtain indefinite culture with roots from dicotyledonous plant tomato using the same medium, thus the way to root culture was opened.
Over the years the technology was developed with contributions from various scientists. Murashige was instrumental in giving the techniques of in vitro culture a status of a viable practical approach for propagation of horticultural species. He has worked extensively for the popularization of the technique by developing standard methods for in virto propagation of several species. Murashige's name has now become intimately associated with the practical application of this technique on a commercial basis.